I won’t be considering republics since I’ve written about them at length elsewhere. Instead, I’ll concentrate on monarchies, taking the situations mentioned above and discussing how each kind of state can be governed and held. So I’ll begin by noting that hereditary monarchies where people have long been used to the ruler’s family are far easier to hold than new ones; all a monarch need do is avoid upsetting the order established by his predecessors, trim policies to circumstances when there is trouble, and, assuming he is of average ability, he will keep his kingdom for life. Only extraordinary and overwhelming force will be able to take it off him and even then he’ll win it back as soon as the occupying power runs into trouble…